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What is edm wire cutting?

January 10, 2024 view: 1,017

Wire edm cutting technology, as a special processing technique, has been widely applied in mechanical manufacturing due to its high processing precision, high production efficiency, low power consumption, and low […]

Wire edm cutting technology, as a special processing technique, has been widely applied in mechanical manufacturing due to its high processing precision, high production efficiency, low power consumption, and low manufacturing cost. Electric discharge wire cutting technology is extensively used in the processing of injection molds, hardware molds, cold punching molds, and precision mechanical parts, including carbide parts.

Introduction to electric discharge wire cutting.

Electric discharge wire cutting, commonly referred to as wire cutting, is a process that uses a continuously moving fine metal wire (electrode wire) for pulse spark discharge erosion of metal and cutting into shapes. This technology is fundamentally different from traditional mechanical force cutting methods, as it primarily utilizes electrical energy to process various materials, especially suitable for materials of any hardness, strength, and brittleness.

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Principle of wire cutting technology.

Wire cutting processing is based on the principle of electric spark discharge. The workpiece is connected to the positive pole of a pulse power source, while the metal wire used for cutting (such as molybdenum wire or copper wire) is connected to the negative pole of a high-frequency pulse power source. This arrangement utilizes spark discharge to cut the part being processed. The effect of the electric field causes the surfaces of the cathode and anode to be bombarded by electrons and ion streams, respectively, generating a high-temperature heat source that melts and vaporizes the local metal, which is then ejected from the discharge channel.

Characteristics of wire cutting technology.

Electric discharge wire cutting technology mainly has the following characteristics:

  1. Suitable for processing various conductive or semi-conductive materials, not limited by the hardness and rigidity of the workpiece.
  2. Suitable for processing small holes and complex-shaped parts but cannot process blind holes. Electrode wire wear is minimal, and processing precision is high.
  3. Due to the narrow kerf and less metal erosion, it is beneficial for material reuse.
  4. Cracks and deformations may appear on the surface of the workpiece during processing. Appropriate heat treatment and rough machining before processing can eliminate defects in material properties and blank shapes, improving processing precision.
  5. Processed through CNC programming technology, facilitating automation.

wire edm machining workshop

Classification.

  1. Slow edm wire cutting machine: High precision, good surface quality, suitable for precision processing.
  2. Medium edm wire cutting machine: Combines the advantages of fast and slow wire cutting, suitable for multiple cuts but requires attention to material deformation treatment.
  3. Fast edm wire cutting machine: Suitable for high-speed processing of cutting materials or processing with lower precision requirements.
  4. Vertical Rotary Electric Discharge Wire Cutting Machine: Provides stable processing quality, extending the life of the electrode wire.

What do you think will be the future trends of electric discharge wire cutting technology? Do you have any unique insights? Feel free to share your views and suggestions in the comments section.